The fork/join framework in Java

Photo by John D. Williams

Indrek Ots
by Indrek Ots
2 min read


  • articles


  • java
  • fork
  • join
  • concurrency
  • concurrent programming
  • fork/join

Introduced in Java 7, the fork/join framework is used to divide a parallelizable task into smaller ones and afterwards combine the intermediate results to get the end result. It is an implementation of the ExecutorService interface. In this post we’re going to look at how to use the fork/join framework. We will create subtasks and submit them to the thread pool.

Getting started

In essence, you need to create a task by extending the RecursiveTask<R> abstract class and implementing the compute() method. The contents of the compute() method can be expressed with the following pseudocode.

if (task small enough) {
  do work sequentially
else {
  divide the task
  call the tasks recursively

The implementation of RecursiveTask should be passed to an instance of ForkJoinPool. If you’re familiar with the concept of divide and conquer then you can see that fork/join is a parallel version of that. I hope that the following diagram will help illustrate it.

fork/join diagram

What if I don’t want to return a result

RecursiveTask is a recursive result-bearing ForkJoinTask. If you only want to modify an existing data structure, what should be the return value of RecursiveTask? When your task returns no result, you should extend the RecursiveAction abstract class which is a recursive resultless ForkJoinTask.

Example code

Most of the time it’s easier to just look at the code. Let’s implement a very simple (and mostly useless) use case of the fork/join framework in Java. Summing the elements of an array should be a good place to start. First of all the following is an implementation of a RecursiveTask.

public class LongSum extends RecursiveTask<Long> {

    private static final int LIMIT = 1000;

    private long[] numbers;
    private int start;
    private int end;

    public LongSum(long[] numbers, int start, int end) {
        this.numbers = numbers;
        this.start = start;
        this.end = end;

    protected Long compute() {
        int length = end - start;
        if (length <= LIMIT) {
            return computeSequentially();

        LongSum left = new LongSum(numbers, start, length/2);

        LongSum right = new LongSum(numbers, start + length/2, end);
        Long rightResult = right.compute();
        Long leftResult = left.join();

        return leftResult + rightResult;

    private Long computeSequentially() {

The compute() method first checks if the size of the task is small enough. If it is, then the result is computed sequentially. Otherwise the task is split into two. fork() is called on the first half, meaning that it is going to be executed asynchronously in a separate thread. The result of the other half is computed in the current thread. Eventually join() is called on the first half. This blocks the current thread until a result is returned. Keep in mind that you need to call join() after the computation of both subtasks has started. Otherwise you’ll end up with a sequential algorithm and that defeats the purpose of using the fork/join framework.

To use the implementation of RecursiveTask you need to instantiate it and pass it to a ForkJoinPool.

long[] numbers = LongStream.rangeClosed(1, 10000).toArray();
LongSum longSum = new LongSum(numbers, 0, numbers.length);
Long result = new ForkJoinPool().invoke(longSum);


Concurrent programming can be difficult. If you’re faced with a task that fits within the domain of the fork/join framework then you’re in luck. Coming up with a multi-threaded algorithm yourself is error prone unless you’re an expert in the field. When the fork/join framework does not suit your needs, you need to use other concurrency constructs provided by Java. I would definitely advise reading Java Concurrency in Practice if you’re interested learning more about concurrent programming in Java.

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