Indrek Ots
by Indrek Ots
2 min read


  • articles


  • upstart
  • system v
  • service
  • linux
  • ubuntu
  • mule
  • esb
  • init

Notice! This post is more than a year old. It may be outdated.

Recently I learned something new and interesting regarding the Service utility. I was trying to run Mule on Ubuntu 14.04.

Mule ESB is a lightweight Java-based enterprise service bus (ESB) and integration platform that allows developers to connect applications together quickly and easily, enabling them to exchange data.

To get the latest version I downloaded the binaries from Mule’s website. Since I wanted it to be run as a service, I created the following init script (in /etc/init.d/mule).



# Set Mule related environment

# Export environment variables

# Invoke Mule
$MULE_HOME/bin/mule $1

It sets some environment variables which are needed by Mule to run. Most notably it initializes RUN_AS_USER to the user I want Mule to run as.

When I call service mule start I see nothing happening. Nothing in the logs and no sign when using the ps command. But when calling /etc/init.d/mule start, Mule starts running fine.

Why is it that when calling the init script directly, Mule starts running fine but when using the service utility, nothing happens? Looking at the startup script for Mule, on line 419 the script is relaunched if it needs to be run as another user.


The man page for service says that it removes most environment variables. So my initial guess was that calling su depends on the environment somehow.

An excerpt from service man page:

service runs a System V init script or upstart job in as predictable an environment as possible, removing most environment variables and with the current working directory set to /.

After some time spent on debugging I discovered that the user mule did not have a shell. It was set to /bin/false. The -m flag for su preserves the environment, so when I called /etc/init.d/mule start the SHELL environment variable was set from my current session and passed down to su.

The SHELL variable describes the shell that will be interpreting any commands you type in. In most cases, this will be bash by default, but other values can be set if you prefer other options.

Conversely, when calling service mule start the environment is cleaned. Therefore the environment did not contain a SHELL variable and the user mule did not have a shell as well. So it seems no command was executed.

This issue got resolved when I added the following lines to the init script.

# Set shell

Now there is a shell which can interpret commands and Mule starts up fine when using the service utility.